Saturday, July 25, 2015
Saturday, July 04, 2015
Testosterone deserves a special approach. Studies on the impact of this hormone on the aggressive behavior are being carried out for centuries. It is well known that, in animal world, for example in birds, the individuals who have a higher level of testosterone behave more aggressively and they can even attack their brothers; they are more combative, more sexually active and bolder in claiming or searching for food [Müller et al., 2014].
When it comes to human species, the important role of testosterone in forming the aggressive and dominating character, especially in men, has been proved [Mazur, Lamb, 1980; Mazur, Booth, 1998; Archer, 2006]. In one of the studies, it has been found that the level of testosterone in delinquents that have been convicted for crimes that implied unprovoked violence is higher than in those who have been convicted for nonviolent crimes, and this trait is characteristic both for men and women [Kreuz, Rose, 1972; Dabbs et al., 1988].
As regarding the impact of testosterone on the induction of a deviant behavior, the Evolutionary Neuroandrogenic Theory has been proposed, which states that the masculine sexual hormones (androgenes), testosterone in the first place, have a specific influence on neural processes, are responsible for a competitive behavior and create a predisposition towards criminality. These types of behavior have evolved especially in men, in order to boost their ability to obtain resources, social status and sexual partners [Ellis, 2003, 2004]. It is why the usage of medical or sportive drugs that contain testosterone (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids) could develop a higher aggressiveness among men, which leads to the fact that they get engaged more often in violent acts [Pope et al., 2000; Beaver et al., 2008].